The interaction of Iron (Fe) and sulfur (S) is dynamic. One of the most common Fe-S minerals is pyrite, also know as fool’s gold. In wetlands, the formation of pyrite is a process controlled by both oxidation-reduction conditions, available reactive iron (Fe) and free sulfide.

A geologic formation of several minerals. The paler yellow mineral is pyrite (image from


  • Julian, Paul, Alan L. Wright, and Todd Z. Osborne. 2016. Iron and Sulfur Porewater and Surface Water Biogeochemical Interactions in Subtropical Peatlands. Soil Science Society of America Journal 80: 794. (link) (For pdf copy please contact me)

  • Julian, Paul, Randy Chambers, and Timothy Russell. 2017. Iron and Pyritization in Wetland Soils of the Florida Coastal Everglades. Estuaries and Coasts 40: 822–831. (link) (For pdf copy please contact me)

  • Julian, P., R. Chambers, J. Kominoski, and T. Troxler. 2017. Pyrite in the Coastal Everglades, It’s more than Fool’s Gold. Poster presented at the Florida Coastal Everglades Long Term Ecological Research Annual Scientist, Miami, FL. (Web Based Version) (pdf)

  • Julian, P., A.L. Wright, R. Chambers, J. Kominoski, T. Troxler and T.Z. Osborne. 2017. Pyrite Formation in the Coastal Everglades: Can a Fool’s Gold Indicate Sea-Level Rise?. ASA/CSSA/SSSA International Annual Conference. Tampa, FL (Abstract Link) (pdf).